There are online communities shrouded in so much darkness that even the bravest search marketer would give up before developing a marketing plan. Social sharing and discussions happen there, but they can’t be tracked in any meaningful way. These are tight knit communities that shun outsiders and are suspicious of big brands. I’m not referring to any new, trending social networks or stodgy, impenetrable image boards—I’m referring to the MUSH.
I started out in the MUSH (Multi User Shared Hallucination) scene when I was 13. I’m naturally something of a charmingly nerdy outsider, so I was drawn to these obscure niche communities as soon as I stumbled upon them. In 1997 I was too young to find likeminded people on Usenet, and there were really no ‘fan communities’ in small town Idaho for me to participate in. MUSHes were a natural fit. I met some great people in those years, some of whom are still my friends.
Before I get into the nitty gritty of what a MUSH is and how they started, I’ll give you the Reader’s Digest version. A MUSH (or MUX, MOO, MUCK, MUD, etc) is an online, multi-player text based game (think Zork) with built-in chat and bulletin board features.
I work in SEO/social media now, so I tend to look at the past through a search marketing lens when a sentimental mood strikes me. MUSHes and their ilk are an almost unknown hyper-niche in the scheme of the internet, and I think they’re worth exploring in terms of dark social (we’ll get into that more later) and marketing as a whole.
But first, a history lesson.
There would be no World of Warcraft or Second Life without the humble MUD. The Multi User Dungeon started it all as early as 1978. I am far too young for that, of course, so I caught up with the MU* phenomenon almost 20 years later. In 1997, I used Telnet to log in to various MUSHes, but there are specific pieces of software (clients such as Pueblo and SimpleMU*) that streamline the connection process.
Back in 1979 at Essex University, Roy Trubshaw created the first virtual world in existence, which was eventually known as MUD1.
MUD1 was spun off many times over the years, and that’s where the evolution of the genre happened. A MUD was a hack and slash roleplaying game in text form, and the emphasis was on the actual combat and gameplay. As the culture expanded, people began to use MUDs for social purposes (beginning with TinyMUD in 1989). That, in turn, spawned the MUSH. The history is complex and interesting.
Most MUSHes are still roleplaying games at heart, and many of them take on the role of interactive fan fiction set in various popular fantasy and science fiction universes. If there’s a popular “geek” property, then there’s been a MUSH dedicated to it.
A MUSH is usually equipped with a bulletin board system (much like any basic web forum or message board) and several chat channels, which function like an IRC room. This is where the discussion about dark social begins.
In October 2012, Alexis Madgiral wrote a piece for The Atlantic called “Dark Social: We Have the Whole History of the Web Wrong.” In that article, he writes about being a teenage Usenet and ICQ user, and explains the concept of dark social.
“There are circumstances, however, when there is no referrer data. You show up at our doorstep and we have no idea how you got here. The main situations in which this happens are email programs, instant messages, some mobile applications, and whenever someone is moving from a secure site… to a non-secure site… This means that this vast trove of social traffic is essentially invisible to most analytics programs. I call it DARK SOCIAL. It shows up variously in programs as “direct” or “typed/bookmarked” traffic, which implies to many site owners that you actually have a bookmark or typed in www.theatlantic.com into your browser. But that’s not actually what’s happening a lot of the time. Most of the time, someone Gchatted someone a link, or it came in on a big email distribution list, or your dad sent it to you.”
That article got me thinking about how I’ve shared and consumed thousands of links– through MUSHes, which are an even darker sort of social than Gchat, IRC or email.
The reason I say that it’s an even darker form of social is that it isn’t saved anywhere. The server, its code and bulletin board messages are saved. Everything else (chat, roleplay) is gone unless someone actively opens up a text file and logs it. There is no way to track that.
MUSHes were an easy way for us to tell jokes, construct unusual emoticons and make ASCII depictions of genitalia, but it went deeper than that.
In the early days, people shared obscure Geocities and Angelfire pages relating to their fandom, as well as personal blogs. These blogs (usually LiveJournal or primitive private domain pages) received extremely heavy traffic from MUSH communities. People also shared their fan fiction, art and photography this way, and links posted to MUSH chat channels and bulletin boards got them much more traffic than search engines ever did. They were not optimized for search engines and they had no real reason to be. Their audience was already there and built in.
As time progressed, we started sharing YouTube videos (or earlier embedded videos on sites such as Something Awful), memes and even links to eCommerce sites. I made more than a few book and CD purchases based on MUSH links.
MUSHes were filled with diverse people who were extremely connected with other communities. We’d often see the 4chan memes before Reddit got a hold of them and read world news (especially from our Middle Eastern friends) before the big American media outlets got a chance to water them down.
In that way, it was a complete dark social network. People had dedicated usernames and profiles that linked to their own websites, which could be brought up at any time through a simple +finger command. You knew the person who was sharing links at least as much as you know your Twitter or Instragram followers, and probably knew them as well as some of your Facebook friends.
None of this was tracked or catalogued.
A marketer might reason that if there’s a social network in place and links are being exchanged then there’s an accompanying marketing opportunity. If there’s an opportunity here, it would be so hard fought and time consuming that the ROI would not be there.
First, you have to find the game. There are MUD directories on the internet, but most are out of date and not even close to all-inclusive. If you stumble upon a game’s webpage and connect through Telnet or a client, you might only find a few people connected. Popular games come and go, so the audience for your marketing venture might not be there.
Marketing has a weird relationship with online text games in the first place. Though I can’t find a source in any newsgroup archives (Wikipedia cites it briefly), author Anne McCaffrey reportedly had a battle with PernMUSH (a game based on her novels) over their content. It seems that McCaffrey’s people, sometime before her passing, hid that battle pretty well. Similarly, George RR Martin decided he’d best give final approval on a Song of Ice and Fire game as well. You can read his statements here.
So when a MUSH gets some mainstream attention from official marketing and PR channels, it usually results in a headache for them. MUSH users generally want to be left alone with their game. Contrast that with Everquest 2 (a graphical MMORPG), which allowed users to order a pizza from within the game using a simple command. Warcraft had a partnership with Mountain Dew; PernMUSH changed so they wouldn’t be sued by McCaffrey.
Let’s get back to that built-in audience. I was a member of several MUSH communities that were brimming with gun-loving, Midwestern Americans. If someone on that game had a night vision scope business, they would have been rolling in money from just posting a few links, but no outsider could have gotten away with it.
MUSH communities are extremely hard to penetrate and even harder to market to. I can only think of one instance where marketing to a MUSH community, and it worked brilliantly.
I can account for one huge marketing success through a MUSH channel first hand. In 2002, I was playing on a Transformers game called Transformers 2005. The annual Transformers convention, Botcon, was happening soon. This was before fan conventions were as big and commercial as they are now.
Someone affiliated with that convention was a member of the community, so no one gave them guff when they posted about it and linked to it. People were interested. The marketing was so good that I went to Fort Wayne, IN the summer after I graduated from high school to attend. Of course, I spent time in Chicago and made a larger trip out of it as well, but I never would have gone without that direct marketing.
The marketing itself used our sense of community and the niche nature of the fandom (this was before Michael Bay made the franchise huge with those terrible movies) to get some butts in the seats. Many other people I talked to admitted they would not have attended if not for that marketing.
So then we can ask ourselves—could Hasbro directly market to a Transformers MUSH? Could Disney directly market to a Star Wars MUSH? The answer is no. Just like tight-knit forum communities, MUSH people have no tolerance for outsiders spamming them with links and marketing material. If it comes from an established community member, it’s great—but if not, it’s just not going to fly.
I’ve been out of that world for 8 years or so now, and it’s not thriving the way it once was. World of Warcraft and other MMOs effectively destroyed it. Those games actually make money, have nice graphics and provide excellent marketing outlets. MUSHes—not so much.
MUSHes still exist, though, and dark social shares are still happening. This little speck on the online map just proves that you can’t monetize, track and put numbers on everything when it comes to the internet. Even when there’s a built-in audience for your client’s business and the barrel is so full of fish that there’s no water in it, it’s just not a viable marketing avenue. Some of the internet will always remain dark.
One of the most inspiring posts for me last year was a piece about content recall by AJ Kohn, where he argued that we should strive to produce content that is memorable, rather than simply ‘great’. This post led me to change the way I think about content so much so that I changed our in-house guidelines for content production (at my real job, I mean).
Here at The Saloon we like to challenge convention, and we also like to challenge ourselves. Convention dictates that these annual round-up posts offer a wide range of carefully curated blog posts that have been heavily researched and lovingly presented. We challenged ourselves to discard these shackles and simply remember.
Without using Google, bookmarks or Twitter to inspire us, we each had to come up with three titles that had such an impact on us that the content recall was almost immediate. AJ’s post is a given, so Anthony, Sean and myself will each give you 3 more. What we are sharing, in this short but hopefully sweet collection, is our experience. As this is so subjective, it is likely that many of you may have different opinions about the ‘most memorable’ posts of the year. This is great, ney, inevitable. We implore you to share yours in the comments below, and garnish them with your thoughts on why you found them so memorable and how they influenced you.
1 – The Secret Diary of an Inbound Marketer by Sean Revell
My first one is an easy one, and so much more than a simple hat tip to my colleague Mr Revell. More than helping me discover this wonderfully gifted writer and friend, this post opened my eyes to a world of new opportunities online. It gave me a sense of freedom and made me question my actions. When I first read this post I’d been in internet marketing for around 8 months, and though I’d been blown away by the sharing nature of the community, I had also become swept up in this ‘inbound marketing bubble’. I had become a bit of a sheep, and this post really helped me step away from the flock and embrace my individuality. Thank you Sean.
2 – Are Your Titles Irresistibly Click Worthy & Viral?! by Dan Shure
What a wonderful title for a post. And what a truly outstanding collection of advice on title-writing. This is probably the blog post I have revisited most in my career – whenever I need some help with a title, i just fire this bad boy up. If you have read it and it didn’t add a shitload of value then you must not have eyes. Seriously, this post is Ogilvy-like in its brilliance and will be a valuable resource for years to come.
3 - Forum Participation Rubric for Ecommerce Link Building by Don Rhoades
Among a host of great posts about content marketing and link building for convertible traffic rather than rankings, this one really stood out for me. Don delves into the untapped value that niche forums can offer ecommerce sites – where that value relates to direct sales – and outlines a rubric to qualify prospects and determine actions. It is subtle, yet extremely powerful, and quite clearly demonstrates that Mr Rhoades is a highly intelligent marketer.
The only thing bad about this post is it’s title (Don, see #2 above…)
1 - How to Create a Link Strategy (For Real) by Michael Martinez
Michael at SEO Theory has been one of the biggest influences on my ‘career’ and how I look to define a service. This post in particular discusses link building and strategy far beyond what you would see on your average SEO blog. At the end of the day take everything you read with a pinch of salt but there are some I believe more than others. Michael is one of those chosen few.
2 - Crowdfunding – The Overlooked SEO Link Building Strategy by Chris Gilchrist
Easily the most underrated post of 2012. An SEO technique that I think could really be useful in terms of developing future relationships and obviously gaining links. Chris has written some smart posts over the last year but this one definitely deserved a better readership. Want to create relevant links that your competitors aren’t getting for a relatively small price? Look no further.
3 - Authority Bloat: An SEO Industry Problem by Ross Hudgens
Unsurprisingly this is one of my favourite posts, Ross is one of the smartest and most professional SEO’s out there. This post puts across how important it is to create something of true value that is non replicable by your competitors. This to me is the truth and the future of online marketing. Read it, digest it and improve your campaigns in 2013. I also advise you read, listen and watch these.
1 – Creating relations and a buzz about your business takes strategy and delicate care. 92 Ways to Get (and Maximize) Press Coverage by Chris Winfield is a solid how-to pr piece, which is rooted in classic methods, yet the delivery and maxims hold true in the digital age.
2 – This is a presentation, and if/when I get a hold of a live video, I’ll change it out. The name says it all – How to Build a Large, Passionate Audience from Scratch (by Rob Woods). It takes you from conception, to identifying consumers/personas, to segmenting/differentiating channels/approach, to application and measurement.
3 – Time for some action - The Templates You Need to Create Actionable SEO Audit Reports by Aleyda Solis. It’s not about ‘how’ to conduct an audit, though resources are within. It visually maps out an overall assess/address management system, that if followed, will make progress.
Since the beginning of the English Premier League (1992, no football didn’t exist before…) the battle for fans & their disposable income has mainly been an international one with ‘brands’ like Manchester Utd, Manchester City, Chelsea, Arsenal & even Liverpool looking to gain fans by playing high profile friendly matches abroad during the pre season.
Over the last 20 years advertising a teams style or brand has become vitally important as sport has combined with technology to become more accessible, professional and financially motivated. For examples of this check out ’mes que un club‘, Arsenal’s brand values or Bayern Munich’s facebookfacepalm.
That’s all well and good Sean but what does this have to do with Followerwonk and or selling stuff?
Good point. Lets get too it.
For today’s example I will be looking at Manchester City Football Club and how they can increase shirt sales, brand visibility and/or match tickets when they play abroad during pre season. As you may have gathered from the title I will be using Followerwonk to find regional twitter followers for Manchester City.
Find the handle – First things first lets find the brand twitter account. For this example the Manchester City Twitter account is @MCFC
Grab some data – Next login to Followerwonk and copy and paste the twitter handle into ‘Analyze Followers’ before choosing to ‘analyze their followers’. Run the report, this should take around half an hour. Due to the large number of followers Followerwonk use a random sample of 100,000 out of the 630,047 current followers. This isn’t perfect but we should still get some decent data (I think this requires a twitter account and SEOmoz pro account, not 100% sure.)
Review your report – Once it’s ready check out your report. Followerwonk aims to approximate the geographic location of up to 5,000 followers (as you can see below.) Unfortunately we don’t have the fixtures for Manchester City’s next pre season so we will base it on where they played last year. After a bit of research I’ve found out that they played Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur. Lets check out the followers for that region of the world (the red 262…)
Drill down – And again… (yellow 53…)
Choose your location – So now we have regional twitter followers that we know will be interested in Manchester City games and merchandise. As the majority of the fans are in the capital city (Kuala Lumpur) and that is the most likely location for any future games we will drill down there (yellow 25…)
Keep drilling – So below we drill down again (yellow 10) and we get a couple of options. Lets check out @yandiimaulana
Potential customer? – I think it’s safe to say he’s a brand advocate… It might be difficult getting him to buy the first kit though. Might try and see if he likes the 2nd kit. :)
Even if the rest of the local followers don’t show the same enthusiasm & zeal as Yandi you still have a great opportunity to get in contact with fans and offer memberships, discounted merchandise and/or show some thanks for their support. Imagine how many local social shares/word of mouth your brand could get within a certain region if you offered specific discounts to specific followers?
For example I’ve just seen the Manchester City Twitter feed tweet the following.
But wouldn’t it be a great opportunity to do the following?
O.k. so the tweet is a little formal but I think you get the picture. I think this idea has legs particularly for smaller businesses looking to undercut large businesses within competitive sectors (review competitor followers, offer their customers a better deal…)
TL;DR = Use Followerwonk, find fans, offer unique deals, increase brand visibility & sales.
You can thank me below.
Actually don’t. Go and get your daily muse on. Anthony is once again talking sense about tweet curation and bubbly content.
Go on now…